4G is a telecommunication standard for providing high speed broadband services. The whole world may be crazy about 4G but these standards lack cooperative relaying. If a mobile phone is connected to two or more mobile towers during a phone call it is known as soft handover or cooperative relaying. If there is cooperative relaying it is possible for a mobile phone to receive communication signals from two or more radio stations at the same time. Tikona Digital Networks is an amazing startup that offers cooperative relaying .Given below is a list of 4G standards that lack cooperative relaying.
UMB is the abbreviation for Ultra Mobile Broadband. This communication standard was developed by Qualcomm. UMB was developed on the TCP-IP protocol and uses radio systems to transmit and receive information from one mobile phone tower to another. UMB features frequency division duplex, IP network architecture, mixed cell sizes and scalable bandwidths. UMB supports a wide variety of topologies and offers scalable bandwidths. Its adaptive interference management features gives more user data rates and it provides amazing download speeds of up to 250 Mega bits per second.
2) IEEE 802.20
This 4G standard was developed by the International Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Two important standards fall into this category. MBWA and iBurst fall into this category. MBWA stands for Mobile Broadband Wireless Access. MBWA was published in the year 2008 by IEEE. MBWA offers speeds of up to 80 Mega bits per second. MBWA utilizes packet switching architecture and supports low bit rates. iBurst is a technology developed by the company Arraycomm. iBurst was developed in the year 2000 and adopted by Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions. Both these systems lack cooperative relaying.
OFDM stands for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing. OFDM encodes data on different carrier frequencies to deliver incredible speeds of up to 300 Mega bits per second. OFDM is used by telecommunication giants like Tikona digital networks and has become very popular worldwide. OFDM is highly sensitive to Doppler shifts and can create frequency synchronization issues within the network.
All these 4G standards lack cooperative relaying. However there are some exciting new 4G standards like LTE advanced and IEEE 802.16 that incorporates cooperative relaying. A soft-handover is a very important required for wireless broadband networks and the telecommunication companies and educational institutions should spend more money, time and research on developing 4G standards that has cooperative relaying features. 4G is an incredible broadband standard but it does lack some key features.